WordPress installation is not hard now. it is simple as press the button. I have already written How to install wordpress in 5 steps. There are many things which you need to do and there are many things which you will learn with time. Here a list essential thing needed after installation given one after one.
1. Erase the Default WP Admin Account
When you install wordpress by one button installation and forgot the change your admin username and password, then you need to change username and password.
In your left panel click on User and add new user as admin. After this logout and login again, Delete the old admin account. And assign all post to new user.
2. Modify the Permalink
After the new admin account, change the permalink type. By default permalink type like http://example.com/?p=555 change it to post name or custom structure as shown in picture. Default permalink type is not appropriate for search engine and seo. Change it before posting any post.
3. Update wordpress ping list
For update ping list go to Setting-> Writing. By default wordpress ping only one ping service. You can get fully updated list from here-> http://codex.wordpress.org/Update_Services
4. Activate Akismet
Akismet is a plugin that save our wordpress blog from spammers. For activate Akismet click on plugin on your left side panel. Then below the Akismet click on active and connect Akismet with your wordpress account. And get a free Api key for Akismet.
5. Install Limit Login Attempts plugin
By default WordPress allows unlimited login attempts either through the login page or by sending special cookies. This allows passwords (or hashes) to be brute-force cracked with relative ease.
Limit Login Attempts blocks an Internet address from making further attempts after a specified limit on retries is reached, making a brute-force attack difficult or impossible.
You can install this plugin from here-> http://wordpress.org/plugins/limit-login-attempts/
6. Upload a new WordPress Theme
Themes give look for blog. For changing theme go to Appearance -> Themes. For choosing good theme go to wordpress theme page here-> http://wordpress.org/themes
7. Backup plugin
Backup always required for your wordpress blog. There are a lot of plugin which provide backup service for your blog. I recommend WordPress backup to Dropbox . For active this plugin you must have Dropbox account. First create Dropbox account here http://dropbox.com and authorize Plugin to access your Dropbox account.
8. Jetpack by WordPress.com
Bring the power of the WordPress.com cloud to your self-hosted WordPress. Jetpack enables you to connect your blog to a WordPress.com. Jetpack has many features like stats, auto post to facebook, twitter, short link, word correction and many more. Install Jetpack from here-> http://wordpress.org/plugins/jetpack/